On this page, there is a description between the difference between
rotation: Use Translations and Rotations - Babylon.js Documentation
Unlike rotation which determines the order of rotations and sets the mesh at the given angles rotate allows you to set the order of rotations, adds the angle to the current rotation and the frame of reference to use.
What is the difference between “determines the order of rotations” for rotation vs “allows you to set the order of rotations” for rotate? What are the differences between rotation and rotate?
Docs for rotate and rotation on the Mesh class: https://doc.babylonjs.com/api/classes/babylon.mesh